Schizophrenia and Related Syndromes


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Learn more about Schizophrenia

Other specified schizophrenia disorder and unspecified psychotic disorders are applicable to individuals who experience symptoms of hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, negative symptoms and of which cause significant distress, impairment in social, occupational, and other important areas of functioning, but are not meeting full criteria for any of the primary psychotic disorders.

What Is a Psychotic Disorder?

For treatment and support options, see our find treatment services section or our support resources section. Symptoms of schizophrenia include: Delusions: implausible beliefs that a person holds with great conviction e. If the above symptoms occur, but occur for a period of time shorter than 6 months the following can be considered: Schizophreniform disorder is a psychiatric condition that has the same symptoms as schizophrenia, but the symptoms persist for for no longer than 6 months.

Brief psychotic disorder is a psychiatric condition in which the same symptoms of schizophrenia exist, but the symptoms persist for at least one full day and no longer than one month, with return to premorbid level of functioning. Various types of delusional disorder include: Erotomanic type: A false belief that includes another person is in love with the individual.

Grandiose type: A false belief involving the individual being responsible for some great talent, insight or having made some important discovery despite acknowledgement from others and evidence. Unspecified type : This applies when the prominent delusion cannot be clearly determined.

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Hearing Voices Network This network aims to raise awareness of voice hearing, visions, tactile sensations and other sensory experiences, giving individuals who have these experiences an opportunity to talk and get support. Mental Health America Mental Health America is a leading community-based non-profit working to address the needs of individuals with mental illness.

They provide extensive information, resources for schizophrenia and psychosis. Individual chapters highlight special issues for parents, siblings, and partners, while other sections provide tips for dealing with problems such as cognitive difficulties, substance abuse, and psychosis. Brain chemistry and structure. Brain function and structure may be different in ways that science is only beginning to understand. Brain scans are helping to advance research in this area. Stressful events such as a death in the family, end of a marriage or loss of a job can trigger symptoms or an onset of the illness.

Drug use. Psychoactive drugs such as LSD have been linked to the development of schizoaffective disorder. Diagnosis Schizoaffective disorder can be difficult to diagnose because it has symptoms of both schizophrenia and either depression or bipolar disorder.

A period during which there is a major mood disorder, either depression or mania, that occurs at the same time that symptoms of schizophrenia are present. Delusions or hallucinations for two or more weeks in the absence of a major mood episode. Symptoms that meet criteria for a major mood episode are present for the majority of the total duration of the illness.

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The abuse of drugs or a medication are not responsible for the symptoms. Donate Now. Keep up with NAMI news and events, or take the next step and become a member.

Popular in: Schizophrenia

These criteria use the self-reported experiences of the person and reported abnormalities in behavior, followed by a clinical assessment by a mental health professional. Symptoms associated with schizophrenia occur along a continuum in the population and must reach a certain severity and level of impairment before a diagnosis is made. To be diagnosed with schizophrenia, two diagnostic criteria have to be met over much of the time of a period of at least one month, with a significant impact on social or occupational functioning for at least six months.

The person had to be suffering from delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized speech. A second symptom could be negative symptoms, or severely disorganized or catatonic behaviour. The ICD criteria are typically used in European countries; the DSM criteria are used in the United States and some other countries, and are prevailing in research studies. The ICD criteria put more emphasis on Schneiderian first-rank symptoms. In practice, agreement between the two systems is high. If signs of disturbance are present for more than a month but less than six months, the diagnosis of schizophreniform disorder is applied.

Psychotic symptoms lasting less than a month may be diagnosed as brief psychotic disorder , and various conditions may be classed as psychotic disorder not otherwise specified ; schizoaffective disorder is diagnosed if symptoms of mood disorder are substantially present alongside psychotic symptoms. If the psychotic symptoms are the direct physiological result of a general medical condition or a substance, then the diagnosis is one of a psychosis secondary to that condition. The ICD defines additional subtypes: []. Psychotic symptoms may be present in several other mental disorders, including bipolar disorder , [] borderline personality disorder , [] drug intoxication, and drug-induced psychosis.

Delusions "non-bizarre" are also present in delusional disorder , and social withdrawal in social anxiety disorder , avoidant personality disorder and schizotypal personality disorder. Schizotypal personality disorder has symptoms that are similar but less severe than those of schizophrenia. It can resemble schizophrenia and be misdiagnosed as such. A more general medical and neurological examination may be needed to rule out medical illnesses which may rarely produce psychotic schizophrenia-like symptoms, such as metabolic disturbance , systemic infection , syphilis , AIDS dementia complex , epilepsy , limbic encephalitis , and brain lesions.

Stroke , multiple sclerosis , hyperthyroidism , hypothyroidism , and dementias such as Alzheimer's disease , Huntington's disease , frontotemporal dementia , and the Lewy body dementias may also be associated with schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms. Investigations are not generally repeated for relapse unless there is a specific medical indication or possible adverse effects from antipsychotic medication.

In children hallucinations must be separated from typical childhood fantasies. Prevention of schizophrenia is difficult as there are no reliable markers for the later development of the disorder. The primary treatment of schizophrenia is antipsychotic medications, often in combination with psychological and social supports. Long-term hospitalization is uncommon since deinstitutionalization beginning in the s, although it still occurs.

Some evidence indicates that regular exercise has a positive effect on the physical and mental health of those with schizophrenia. The first-line psychiatric treatment for schizophrenia is antipsychotic medication, [] which can reduce the positive symptoms of psychosis in about 7 to 14 days. Antipsychotics fail to significantly improve the negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. The choice of which antipsychotic to use is based on benefits, risks, and costs.

Most people on antipsychotics have side effects. People on typical antipsychotics tend to have a higher rate of extrapyramidal side effects ; some atypicals are associated with considerable weight gain, diabetes and risk of metabolic syndrome. This is most pronounced with olanzapine; risperidone and quetiapine are also associated with weight gain.


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For people who are unwilling or unable to take medication regularly, long-acting depot preparations of antipsychotics may be used to achieve control. A number of psychosocial interventions may be useful in the treatment of schizophrenia including: family therapy , [] assertive community treatment , supported employment, cognitive remediation , [] skills training, token economic interventions, and psychosocial interventions for substance use and weight management.

Schizophrenia has great human and economic costs.


  1. Unsere Lehrer hatten Stöcke. Unsere Pfarrer hatten Hände. Wir geschlagenen Kinder. (German Edition);
  2. Advanced Search Help.
  3. Schizophrenia - Wikipedia.
  4. Schizophrenia - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics?
  5. Schizophrenia | Mental Health America!
  6. The Heretic.
  7. Schizophrenia is a major cause of disability , with active psychosis ranked as the third-most-disabling condition after quadriplegia and dementia and ahead of paraplegia and blindness. There is a higher than average suicide rate associated with schizophrenia.

    Schizophrenia and smoking have shown a strong association in studies worldwide. Schizophrenia affects around 0. Despite the prior belief that schizophrenia occurs at similar rates worldwide, its frequency varies across the world, [6] [] within countries, [] and at the local and neighborhood level. In , the World Health Organization found the percentage of people affected and the number of new cases that develop each year is roughly similar around the world, with age-standardized prevalence per , ranging from in Africa to in Japan and Oceania for men, and from in Africa to in Southeastern Europe for women.

    Schizophrenia: Symptoms, causes, and treatments

    In the early 20th century, the psychiatrist Kurt Schneider listed the forms of psychotic symptoms that he thought distinguished schizophrenia from other psychotic disorders. These are called first-rank symptoms or Schneider's first-rank symptoms. They include delusions of being controlled by an external force, the belief that thoughts are being inserted into or withdrawn from one's conscious mind, the belief that one's thoughts are being broadcast to other people, and hearing hallucinatory voices that comment on one's thoughts or actions or that have a conversation with other hallucinated voices.

    A review of the diagnostic studies conducted between and found that they allow neither a reconfirmation nor a rejection of Schneider's claims, and suggested that first-rank symptoms should be de-emphasized in future revisions of diagnostic systems. The history of schizophrenia is complex and does not lend itself easily to a linear narrative.

    A detailed case report in concerning James Tilly Matthews , and accounts by Philippe Pinel published in , are often regarded as the earliest cases of the illness in the medical and psychiatric literature. In Emil Kraepelin borrowed the term from Schule and Pick and in introduced a broad new distinction in the classification of mental disorders between dementia praecox and mood disorder termed manic depression and including both unipolar and bipolar depression. This account ignores the fact that there is little to connect Morel's descriptive use of the term and the independent development of the dementia praecox disease concept at the end of the nineteenth century.

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    Schizophrenia and Related Syndromes Schizophrenia and Related Syndromes
    Schizophrenia and Related Syndromes Schizophrenia and Related Syndromes
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